The End of Oil
Kunstler states that oil will end in the nearest future and the Americans will not be able to live as they do today anymore, because everything is based on oil in the US production. He writes, “Most immediately we face the end of the cheap-fossil-fuel-era”. Kunstler gives the following reasons to support his claim:
– “The United States passed its own oil peak in 1970”.
– “Energy problems will synergize with the disruptions of climate change”.
– “Food production is going to be an enormous problem in the Long Emergency”.
Underlying assumption of the article is that “the Long Emergency is going to be a tremendous trauma for the human race”. Among the most notable examples that support the main idea of the article are the following ones: the countries have passed their oil peak and the oil rate is dropping steadily, and the world might face water deficit after oil sources of producing energy will end. The paragraphs about possible disasters of the era without oil create pathos, because they refer directly to the readers’ emotions. The writer establishes ethos by detailed descriptions of American way of life and comparing it with other countries. Some points in the argument can be interpreted as informal, for example, the phrases that even Bulgarians do not have such bad railroads as Americans do.
The article emphasizes that nuclear energy is the best one. The author states: “Many people are beginning to understand that nuclear energy is a superior form of energy because it possesses several economic and environmental advantages over coal, oil and gas”. He emphasizes the following issues to support his idea:
– “Cost effectiveness of uranium compared to the rising prices of other fossils”.
– Decrease of unemployment rate in the cities where reactors are built.
– Comparatively safe way to produce energy.
The idea that nuclear power is the most progressive source of energy is the underlying assumption. The author explains it in the beginning when he describes the principles of work of the reactor. Then, he gives an example of Chernobyl catastrophe and describes the way nuclear production improved since then. These passages also create pathos, because they are creating a vivid image of what nuclear sphere is like and the readers can understand it easily and emotionally. Ethos can be found in the historical flashbacks about the development of energy production.
The Need for Change
The main idea of the article is that fossils cannot be the energy provider of the future. This thought is expressed in the third paragraph. Among the most important reasons that support this idea are the following issues:
– “The supply from the Middle East is not constant and could lead to a shortage without warning”.
– “There is a worldwide disaster of carbon dioxide emissions through fossil fuel use”.
The deteriorating impact of fossil fuel on ecology is an underlying assumption. The writes mentions alternative ways of energy production in the article, which are counter-evidence to the main idea. Pathos is created by personification of fossils in the beginning of the text, where the writer describes how history is turning to stones. Ethos of the article is in the description that everyone knows that fossil energy has a deteriorating effect on environment.
Over a Barrel
The main idea of the article is that the US faces many problems with oil production connected with ecology and economy. The author writes that the country needs “to improve automotive efficiency or develop cost-effective ethanol”. The main evidences that support the idea of the article are about greenhouse effect, air pollution by cars, rising costs on gas and big cars that need much gas. Underlying assumption of the text is that oil energy has a negative effect of ecology. The writer gives examples of alternative ways of producing energy that are actively used abroad. Pathos is created by the first person narration that creates an effect of a friendly discussion in the beginning of the text. Ethos is evident in the descriptions of American preferences for big cars that consume much gas.
Delinger, D. (n.d.). Going Nuclear. Retrieved from http://docdroid.net/57nq
Cole, C. (n.d.). The Need for Change. Retrieved from http://docdroid.net/57no
Kunstler, J. (n.d.). The End of Oil. Science and Human Values. Retrieved from http://docdroid.net/57nh
Roberts, P. (n.d.). Over a Barrel. Science and Human Values. Retrieved from http://docdroid.net/57nk